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Feed additive:

Effect of a graded supplementation of savory in broiler feed on growth and carcass traits

Growth promoting feed additives

The ban on the antibiotics as a growth promoting feed additives in the animal feed (01.01.2006) in the EU requires the search for alternative substances. A combination from good production conditions and the supplementation of the feed mixtures with so-called "pronutrients", or, digestible fibres, very digestible nutrients and herbs contain, shall contribute to the realization of this aim, prebiotica, the organic acids, enzymes, per. Again and again, new plants or parts of them or substances won from it get by to this as well as still extensively unknown plants from original woods regions which are examined with modern analysis technology. The animal diet already uses known effect spectra of herbs and extracts from the human medicine and checks the potential in scientific examinations. Already within the years 1955 - 1957 you reported about the influence of proteolytischen plant enzymes and antibiotic contents substances of flowering plants on the growth of poultry. 1982 was that these develop a growth-promoting effect and improve the feed utilization proved at a number of natural substances (spices). The check of natural products (Eleutherococcus root extract, pollen extracts, onion powders, well-being and spice plants) as of the 80 years yielded particularly a protected positive influence on the final body mass and the feed conversion for the supplemention of onion powder to the chickens for fattening diet.

The herb savory (Satureja hortensie L.) as feed additive
The spice plant savory (Satureja hortensie L.) is indigenous to the eastern Mediterranean and shall have been brought by Benedictine monks over the Alps to Central Europe in the 9th century. Savory thrives under our climatic conditions optimally and simply can be grown relatively. Her special meaning as feed additive results from it in the diet of animals. The plant cultivators try to raise the content of essential oil in the savory on the range of oregano (approximately 5 ml/100 g) to make use even more effective in the animal diet so.

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Effect of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris on laying hen performance

Two studies with regard to the influence of savory (Satureja hortensis L.) as feed supplement on growth and carcass traits were carried out with male broiler chickens over periods of 35 days. In Trial 1 the effect of a diet supplemented with staggered savory (2.5/5/10 g/kg) and staggered age (1st, 15th, 22nd days of age) was examined. In Trial 2, two groups additional could choose between a control diet and a diet with savory (2.5/5 g/kg). In Trial 1, a total of 2.5 g and 10 g of savory as feed additive were fed starting at day 1 of age, of 10 g starting at day 15 of age, and of 5 g starting at day 22 of age, significantly reduced feed intake. As a consequence the body weight gain and carcass traits of broiler of these groups were negatively improved in comparison to the control animals. Feed conversion didn’t significantly affect the results. In Trial 2, in the two groups choosing their diets, feed intake of control diet was similar compared to the savory diet. At the age of 22nd to 35th days, at the end of the growing period the broilers of choice diet group with 5 g savory achieved the highest daily weight gain compared to the other groups. As a consequence the feed conversion was reduced and significantly improved over the 35 growing days. At slaughtering, the 5 g savory group showed a significantly higher portion of breast meat and less abdominal and visceral fat in comparison to the other groups.

Literature

  • Halle, I., Thomann, R., Bauermann, U. (2008) Effect of a graded supplementation of savory in broiler feed on growth and carcass traits. Arch. Geflügelk., 72 (3), 129-135. 
  • Halle I, Thomann R, Bauermann U, Henning M, Köhler P (2004) Einfluss einer gestaffelten Supplementierung von Kräutern oder ätherischen Ölen auf Wachstum und Schlachtkörpermerkmale beim Broiler. Landbauforsch Völkenrode 54(4):219-229
  • Halle I, Thomann R (2004) Effects of Savoury, Nigella sativa L. and Cacao husks on growth and carcass composition of broiler chickens. Proc Soc Nutr Physiol 13:147 [Abstract] 
  • Halle, Ingrid; Bauermann, U.; Thomann, R. (2007) Effects of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium on growth and carcass composition of broiler chickens. Proceedings of the Society of Nutrition Physiology, Band 16:95, Abstract 
  • Halle, Ingrid; Thomann, R.; Friebel, H.; Grün, M.; Henning, Martina; Köhler, P.; Flachowsky, Gerhard (2008) Influence of woad (Isatis tinctoria) and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) on growth of broiler chickens. Proceedings of the Society of Nutrition Physiology, Band 17, englisch
  • ISBN10: 3-7690-4100-2; ISBN13: 978-3-7690-4101-9
  • Halle, Ingrid; Thomann, R.; Bauermann, Ulrike (2008) Einfluss einer gestaffelten Supplementierung von Kräutern oder ätherischen Ölen auf Wachstum und Schlachtkörpermerkmale beim Broiler. Rekasan-Journal, Band 15, Heft 29-30, Seite 93-96, deutsch ISSN: 1437-3807
  • Halle, Ingrid; Thomann, R.; Bauermann, Ulrike (2008) Einfluss eines gestaffelten Gehaltes von Bohnenkraut im Mastfutter auf Wachstums- und Schlachtmerkmale beim Broiler. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, Band 72, Heft 3, Seite 129-135, deutsch ISSN: 0003-9098

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Effect of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris on laying hen performance

Nutrition of laying hens focuses on sustaining health and the egg production with parallel improvement of egg quality. Chlorella vulgaris, a natural occurring green microalga has been artificially cultivated and finds even more industrial and nutritional interests. Its components are believed to influence animals’ performance and health, including the reproduction and the egg quality, however the results are equivocal and the nutritive value of open or indoor cultivated C. vulgaris depends upon the technological process used to treat the algal mass. Different thermal processes applied in order to destroy the robust cell wall restricting the enzymes’ access to the cell components lead to denaturizing of amino acids and/or active substances of chlorella cells and affect the microalgal protein digestibility. In the present study, two differentially processed microalgal powders, i.e. spray-dried or bullet milled and then spray-dried were added to laying hen feed. The effect of such supplementation on laying hen performance was investigated in a longer-term feeding and in two short-term nitrogen-balance studies.

In the feeding trial a total of 182 laying hens (Lohmann Brown) were allocated to 7 groups with 26 hens per group. Hens were kept individually in a cage battery. The experiment commenced when the hens were 22 weeks old and continues into 8th laying month. The hens became artificially inseminated. Eggs laid were recorded daily and feed consumption monthly. Eggs were weighed four times in two weeks each month. In the 3rd and 6th laying month eggs collected over 3 days from all hens and the egg composition (yolk weight, albumen weight, shell weight, yolk colour) was examined. Furthermore 5-10 eggs per hen were collected over a period of time of 10 days in the 2nd and 5th laying month and stored in the incubator. The basal diet was formulated to contain 0 g, 2.5 g, 5.0 g, 7.5 g SD Chlorella vulgaris or BM-SD Chlorella vulgaris per kg. In the balance trials 36 hens were allocated two 3 (Trial 1) or 4 (Trial 2) groups. Feed consumption was 110 g per hen in the prepaid period (5 days) and also in the 5 day excreta collecting period at the age of 24 weeks of the hens.

In the feeding trial was a significant different in the feed intake between Control and 7.5 g BM group while there were no differences between the other groups. The laying intensity, egg weight, daily egg mass production and feed conversion was the same in all groups. The examinations of the egg quality showed that in the tendency the yolk weight was higher and partly significantly improved in groups with 5 g and 7.5 SD and BM and also 2.5 g BM compare to Control and 2.5 g SD group in the two times measurements. Out of it the albumen weight of eggs from the control and the 2.5 g SD group was higher than that of the other groups in the 2nd measure period. 7.5 g SD significantly improved egg shell weight in the 3rd. In the 6th laying month no differences in shell weight between the groups were determined. Noticeable is the more intensive yolk colour of the eggs from all SD and BM groups at the age of 3 laying months. Three months later differences in yolk colour between the groups were more at random. The hatching parameters were not influenced by the feed supplement. N-balance analysis regarding protein accretion of hens in the two trials did not show any differences between Control and Chlorella vulgaris groups.

In the present study we have shown a supplementation of a hen diet with the green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris positively affected the laying performance, increasing the number and quality of laid eggs, as well as the hatching performance. However, this phenomenon seems to be pronounced at the beginning of the laying period. No adverse effects of the microalgae on the hen health or protein accretion were observed. Spray dried or bullet milled and spray dried Chlorella vulgaris can therefore be used as a dietary supplement for laying hens.

Literature

  • Halle, I. Janczyk, P. Freyer, G. und W. B. Souffrant (2009) Effect of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris on laying hen performance. Archiva Zootechnica 12:2, 5-13
  • Jnancyk, P., Halle, I. und W. B. Souffrant (2009) Microbial community composition of the crop and ceca contents of laying hens diets supplemented with Chlorella vulgaris. Poultry Science 88:2324-2332

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