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Institute of Diagnostic Virology (IVD)

National Reference Laboratory for Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)

Information of the FLI on the current Situation for Equine Infectious Anemia

Equine Infectious Anemia

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a systemic virus infection of horses, donkeys, their crossbreeds, and zebras. The causative agent, a lentivirus from the family of retroviruses, replicates in monocytes and macrophages and causes lifelong persistent infection accompanied by more or less severe immunopathological processes.

The disease is notifiable and is regimented in Germany by the „regulation for protection against equine infectious anemia“ (2000, Federal Law Gazette I p. 531) which imposes mandatory culling of positive animals as well as movement bans and testing of affected and contact holdings. Immunoprophylaxis is not available. A risk for humans does not exist.

EIA occurs worldwide and is reported in larger numbers in North and South America, Africa, Asia, Australia, and in Southern and Eastern Europe. In Northern and Central Europe, sporadic cases are registered. The virus is not endemic in Germany, isolated outbreaks however occur repeatedly. In most cases so far, an association with imported horses could be established.

Mechanic transmission by large sanguivorous insects such as the dark giant horsefly and the stable fly (Tabanus, Stomoxys) is of epidemiologically relevant significance. Attached to the mouthparts of insects, EIAV remains infectious for not more than 30 minutes; therefore insect vectors do not spread the virus over longer distances. Infected horses excrete EIAV with body secretions such as saliva, milk and semen which may also be a transmission route, if animals are kept in close contact with each other. EIAV can also be transmitted by certified biological products or by veterinary instruments or grooming equipment, if disinfection and hygienic measures are neglected.

Infected animals remain lifelong virus carriers and are potential sources of infection. In many cases the name-giving anemia, which is caused by the immunopathological destruction of red blood cells, is not observed. 30 to 90 % of infected animals are asymptomatic, the animals remain healthy-looking virus carriers, so-called asymptomatic carriers.

Clinical disease can manifest in an acute or chronic form, in isolated cases with fatal outcome. Clinical episodes usually last 3 to 5 days and are accompanied by recurrent febrile episodes.

The acute course of disease is characterized by fever, apathy, as well as petechiae especially on the underside of the tongue and on mucous membranes and palpebral conjunctiva. Chronic courses are characterized by acute episodes of disease with recurrent fever, fatigue and edema.

Differential diagnostics

Babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, leptospirosis, borreliosis as well as equine viral arthritis (EVA) must be considered. Edema may also be a sign of kidney disorders, cardiac and blood circulation insufficiency or helminthosis.

The following services belong to the task spectrum of the national reference laboratory for EIA:

  • Antibody detection for confirmation of positive results and for verification of unclear results
  • Confirmatory genome detection
  • Contact for federal and state authorities
  • Supply of reference material
  • Licensing tests and batch testing of EIA diagnostics
  • Control, standardization and improvement of test methods
  • Organization of qualification measures, e.g. for staff of veterinary diagnostic authorities
  • Organization of national and international ring trials
  • Participation in EU ring trials
  • Research for improvement and standardization of EIA diagnostics
  • Antibody detection by agargel immunoprecipitation test (AGID) and ELISA
  • Genome detection by RT-PCR and PCR
  • Characterization of isolates by nucleotide sequencing
  • Calicivirus infections in leporids (administrative assistance in diagnostics, commercially unavailable diagnostics, pathogen characterization, in vitro culture, vaccine development, pathogenesis)
  • Reference sera
  • Panel of samples for testing of new diagnostic methods
  • Optimierung des Nachweises und der Charakterisierung von EHDV-Genom mittels RT-qPCR-Systemen
  • Etablierung und Optimierung des Serumneutralisationstests (SNT) für EHDV
  • WOAH listed disease
  • TierSeuchAnzV (Regulation on the notification of animal diseases) of 3 November 2001, last modified on 18 December 2009
  • Regulation for the protection from equine infectious anemia (2000, Federal Law Gazette I, p. 531)